What is Metal Forming Process? How Can We Classify it?

Today we will learn about metal forming process, its types, advantages and disadvantages. To convert a work piece into various shapes many manufacturing process are used like casting, machining, forming etc. Metal forming is one of the most useful processes of converting work piece into desire shape. Metal forming depends on yield strength of material. In this processes, the work piece is subjected under a force such that the stresses induced in work piece material is higher compare to yield strength of material and lower the ultimate strength. The metal forming takes place due toplastic deformation of material. In these process, the metal is either heated or not and the applied forces are either compressive or tensile according to the product requirement. All rolling, extrusion, drawing etc. processes are include in it.

Types of Metal Forming Process:
Mainly these processes can be classified into two types.

Hot Working Process:
When the metal forming process done above the recrystallization temperature of material, it is known as hot working process. The recrystallization temperature is about one third of the melting temperature of most of the metals. In hot working process, the temperature at which deformation takes place is important because further increase in temperature increase grain growth thus decrease mechanical properties.


  • Any metal can be shaped above recrystallization temperature.
  • Any amount of working can be imparted.
  • It requires less force compare to cold working.
  • Any grain size can be achieved by proper controlling the working temperature and cooling rate.


  • The metals which get brittle at high temperature cannot be worked by hot working process.
  • It gives poor surface finish due to scale formation at surface at higher temperature.
  • It is difficult to control dimension accuracy at higher temperature.
  • Difficult to handle hot work piece.

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